Home‎ > ‎List‎ > ‎Periodontal Disease‎ > ‎



Andrews, J., Severson, H., Lichtenstein, E., & Gordon, J. (1998). Relationship between tobacco use and self-reported oral hygiene habits. Journal of the American Dental Association, 129: 313-320.


     Axelsson, P., Paulander, J., & Lindhe, J. (1998). Relationship between smoking and dental status in 35-, 50-, 65-, and 75-year-old individuals. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 25: 297-305.


     Basu, M., Glenwright, H., Fox, E., & Becker, J. (1976). Salivary IgG and IgA before and after periodontal therapy. Journal of Periodontal Research, 11: 226-229.


     Bennet, K., & Reade, P. (1992). Salivary imununoglobulin A levels in normal subjects, tobacco smokers, and patients with minor aphthous ulcerations. Oral Surgery, 53: 461-466.


     Bergstrom, J., & Eliasson, S. (1987). Noxious effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal health. Journal of Periodontal Research, 22: 513-517.


Bergstrom, J., Eliasson, S., & Preber, H. (1991). Cigarette smoking and periodontal bone loss. Journal of Periodontology, 62(4): 242-246.


     Bergstrom, J., & Preber, H. (1986). The influence of cigarette smoking on the development of experimental gingivitis. Journal of Periodontological. Research, 21: 668-676.


     Bernzweig, E., Payne, J., Reinhardt, R., Dyer, J., & Patil, K. (1998). Nicotine and smokeless tobacco effects on gingival and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 25: 246-252.


 Bolin, A., Eklund, G., Frithiof, L., & Lavstedt, S. (1993). The effect of changed smoking habits on marginal alveolar bone loss.” Sweddish Dental Journal, 17: 211-216.


     Bouclin, R., Landry, R., & Noreau, G. (1997). The effects of smoking on periodontal structures: A literature review. Journal of Canadian Dental Association, 63(5): 356-361.



     Giannopoulou, C., Geinoz, A., & Cimasoni G. (1999). Effects of nicotine on periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 26: 49-55.


     Grossi, S., Skrepcinski, F., DeCaro, T.,Zambon, J., Cummins, D., & Genco, R. (1996). Response to periodontal therapy in diabetics and smokers. Journal of Periodontology, 67(10): 1094-1101.


     Grossi, S., Zambon, J, Machtei, E., Schifferle, R., Andreana, S., Genco, R, et al. (1997). Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on healing after mechanical periodontal therapy. Journal of the American Dental Association, 128: 599-607.


     Gunsolley, J., Quinn, S., Tew, J., Gooss, C, Brooks, C., & Schenkein, H. (1998). The effect of smoking on individuals with minimal periodontal destruction. Journal of Periodontology, 69: 165-170.

     Haber, J. (1994). Cigarette smoking: A major risk factor for periodontitis. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry, 15(8): 1002-1013.


     Haber, J., & Kent, R. (1992). Cigarette smoking in a periodontal practice. Journal of Periodontology, 63(2): 100-106.


     Haber, J., Wattles, J., Crowley, M., Mandell, R., Joshipura, K., & Kent, R. (1993). Evidence for cigarette smoking as a major risk factor for periodontitis. Journal of Periodontology , 64, 16-23.


     Hamel, S., & Craig, B. (1997). The effects of cigarette smoking on periodontal disease. Probe, 31(6): 204-206.


Holm, G. (1994). Smoking as an additional risk for tooth loss. Journal of Periodontology, 65: 996-1001.


     James, J., Sayers, N., Drucker, D., & Hull, P. (1999). Effects of tobacco products on the attachment of periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Journal of Periodontology, 70: 518-525.


     Jorgensen, L., Kallehave, F., Christensen, E., Siana, J., & Gottrup, F. (1998). Less collagen production in smokers. Surgery, 123(4): 450-455.


Kaldahl, W., Jonson, G., Patil, K., Baumert, M., & Kalkwarf, K. (1992). Effect of smoking on periodontal therapy.” Journal of Dental Research, 71: 297.


     Kinane, D., & Radvar, M. (1997). The effect of smoking on mechanical and antimicrobial periodontal therapy.” Journal of Periodontology, 68: 467-472.


     Krall, E., Garvey, A., & Garcia, R. (1999). Alveolar bone loss and tooth loss in male cigar and pipe smokers. Journal of the American Dental Association, 130: 57-64.


     Lamster, L. (1992). The host response in gingival crevicular fluid: Potential applications in periodontitis clinical trials. Journal of Periodontology, 63: 1117-1123.


     Linden, G., & Mullally, B. (1994). Cigarette smoking and periodontal destruction in young adults. Journal of Periodontology, 65: 718-723.


     Lindquist, L., Carlsson, G., & Jemt, T. (1997). Association between marginal bone loss around osseointegrated mandibular implants and smoking habits. Journal of Dental Research, 76: 1667.


     MacFarlane, G., Herzberg, M., Wolff, L., & Hardie, N. (1992). Refractory periodontitis associated with abnormal polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis and cigarette smoking. Journal of Periodontology, 63: 908-913.


     Mandel, I. (1994). Smoke signals: An alert for oral disease. Journal of the American Dental Association , 125: 872-878.


     Martinez-Canut, P., Lorca, A., & Magan, R. (1995). Smoking and periodontal disease severity. Journal of Clinical Periodontology , 22: 743-749.


     McGuire, J., McQuade, M., Rossmann, J., Garnick, J., Sutherland, D., Scheidt, M., et al. (1989). Cotinine in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid of smokers with periodontal disease. Journal of Periodontology, 60(4): 176-181.


     Mullally, B., & Llinden, G. (1996). Molar furcation involvement associated with cigarette smoking in periodontal referrals. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 23: 658.


     Pabst, M., Pabst, K., Collier, J., Coleman, T., Lemons-Prince, M., Godat, M., et al. (1995). Inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte defensive functions by nicotine. Journal of Periodontology, 66: 1047-1055.


     Peacock, M., Sutherland, D., Schuster, G., Brennan, W., O’Neal, R, Strong, S., et al. (1993). The effect of nicotine on reproduction and attachment of human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. Journal of Periodontology , 64(7): 658-665.


     Preber, H., & Bergstrom, J. (1990). Effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal healing following surgical therapy. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 17: 324-328.


     Preber, H., & Bergstrom, J. (1985). The effect of nonsurgical treatment on periodontal pockets in smokers and nonsmokers. Journal of Clinical Periodontologyl,13: 319-323.


     Preber, H., Linder, L., Bergstrom, J. (1995). Periodontal healing and periopathogenic microflora in smokers and non-smokers. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 22: 946-952.


     Preber, H., Bergstrom, J., & Linder, L. (1992). Occurrence of periopathogens in smoker and non-smoker patients. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 19: 667-671.


     Raulin, L., McPherson, J., McQuade, M., & Hanson, B. (1988). The effect of nicotine on the attachment of human fibroblasts to glass and human root surfaces in vitro. Journal of Periodontology, 59(5): 318-325.


Renvert, S, Dahlen, G, & Wikstrom, M. (1998). The clinical and microbiological effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy in smokers and non-smokers. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 25: 153-157


     Ryder, M., Fujitaki, R., Lebus, S., Mahboub, M., Faia, B., Muhaimin, D., et al. (1998). Alterations of neutrophil L-selectin and CD18 expression by tobacco smoke: implications for periodontal diseases. Journal of Periodontology, 33: 359-368.


     Schenkein, H., Gunsolley, J., Koertge, T., Scheinkein, J., & Tew, J. (1995). Smoking and its effects on early onset periodontitis. Journal of the American Dental Association, 126: 1107-1113.


     Sheiham, A. (1971). Periodontal disease and oral cleanliness in tobacco smokers. Journa of Periodontology, 42: 259-263.


     Soder, B. (1994). Influence of smoking on periodontal health and change of coping potential among smokers and non-smokers with adult periodontitis in relation to 5-year maintenance. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 68(6).


     Stoltenberg, J., Osborn, J., Pihlstrom, B., Herzberg, M., Aeppli, D., Wolff, L., et al. (1993). Association between cigarette smoking, bacterial pathogens, and periodontal status. Journal of Periodontology, 64(12): 1225-1230.


     Tangada, S., Califano, J., Nakashima, K., Quinn, S., Zhang, J.-B., John, C., et al. (1997). The effect of smoking on serum IgG2 reactive with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in early-onset periodontitis patients. Journal of Periodontology, 68: 842-850.


     Tipton, D., & Dabbous, M. (1995). Effects of nicotine on proliferation and extracellular matrix production of human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. Journal of Periodontology , 66(12): 1056-1064.


     Tonetti, M. (1998). Cigarette smoking and periodontal diseases: Etiology and management of disease. Annals of Periodontology, 3(1): 88-97.


 Trombelli, L., Kim, C., Zimmerman, G., & Wikesjo, U. (1997). Retrospective analysis of factors related to clinical outcome of guided tissue regeneration procedures in infrabony defects. Journal of Clinical Periodontologyl, 24: 366-371.


     Zambon, J., Grossi, S., Machtei, E., Ho, A., Dunford, R., & Genco, R. (1996). Cigarette smoking increases the risk for subgingival infection with periodontal pathogens. Journal of Periodontology, 67(10): 1050-1054.